The FM9001 Microprocessor:
Its Formal Specification and
Mechanical Correctness Proof

A photograph of the die plot for the FM9001.

Bishop C. Brock and Warren A. Hunt, Jr.,

Computational Logic, Inc.

Fall, 1994

The FM9001 Public Software License

To insure its safe public distribution, the FM9001 software is issued under a license. Potential users should review the license before obtaining the FM9001 software. The FM9001 software is copyright (C) 1990-1994 by Computational Logic, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Obtaining the FM9001 System

To obtain the FM9001 system, which includes the definition of the DUAL-EVAL formal hardware description language, connect to Internet site by anonymous ftp, giving your email address as the password. There are both compressed and gzipped versions available. For the gzipped version `get' the file /pub/fm9001/fm9001.tar.gz, unzip with gunzip, extract with tar xfv fm9001.tar, and follow the instructions in the next section of this file. Remember to use `binary' mode when transferring the file. For the compressed version, `get' the file /pub/fm9001/fm9001.tar.Z, uncompress with uncompress, and extract with tar xvf fm9001.tar. Alternatively, get either of the URLs or via your WWW browser.

The FM9001 Specification and Proof

In the directory produced by extracting the files from fm9001.tar are the files for the FM9001 microprocessor specification along with the commands for producing the mechanical proof of correctness of the FM9001 using the Nqthm-1992 theorem-proving system. All the files are authored by Bishop Brock and Warren Hunt unless otherwise noted in a file.

To run the proofs, and thereby create not only proof scripts but also library files, execute the command

  (with-open-file (*standard-output* "nqthm-proof-output"
                                     :direction :output
                                     :if-exists :rename-and-delete)
                  (load "sysdef.lisp"))

from within Nqthm-1992.

After this proof run has completed it is possible to load the created libraries. See the file sysload.lisp.

Published Documentation

The FM9001 microprocessor and the proof of its correctness are described in:

The DUAL-EVAL Hardware Description Language

The FM9001 implementation is defined via the DUAL-EVAL hardware description language. DUAL-EVAL provides a general-purpose interpreter-based simulator semantics for sequential hardware designs (Mealy machines). The DUAL-EVAL system provides a means for hierarchical verification of Mealy machines. The verification of the FM9001 implementation was performed by hierarchically verifying that the many different Mealy machines that comprise the implementation successfully cooperate to implement the behavioral-level FM9001 specification. The process of executing the FM9001 proofs, as described above, results in the construction of reusable libraries for the verification of other hardware designs described in the DUAL-EVAL language. To commence a new DUAL-EVAL based hardware verification effort, it suffices to initialize Nqthm with the DUAL-EVAL library by the two commands:
 (load "sysload.lisp")
 (note-lib "dual-eval" t)

For some simple example circuits expressed in the DUAL-EVAL language, see the two files and These example circuits are not part of the FM9001 implementation, even though they are included in the FM9001 proof scripts. These example files may be loaded after executing the two commands above. In the files and are recognizers for the DUAL-EVAL language. The primitives for the DUAL-EVAL language are defined in the file primp-database.lisp.

FM9001 Overview

A brief overview of the FM9001 project is available.

To aid the reader in comprehending the various levels of the FM9001 specification, we have extracted some definitions from the result of evaluating the entire proof script (which is composed of most of the FM9001 files). Here are the names of these summary files and the levels of which they are summaries:

At the beginning of the file a summary of the instruction set of the FM9001 may be found. The file contains a simple assembler and a few example programs for execution on the FM9001 by the high level specification. The external memory model is axiomatized in the file

The most important theorems proved about the FM9001 are contained in the following files.


To produce the file of NDL (LSI Logic's Netlist Description Language) that was supplied to LSI Logic, Inc. to fabricate the FM9001 as an ASIC, see the file translate.lisp. This will generate the actual netlist used by LSI Logic, Inc. to produce working FM9001s.

Note: the total fabrication process includes more than this netlist. Not included are other things we generated for LSI Logic, such as post fabrication test vectors, simulation files, package pin assignments, nor stuck-at fault vector generation and fault grading files.

Physical Testing

In CLI Technical Report 90, we document our post-fabrication testing of the physical device. The testing included both executing FM9001 machine code and also low-level testing with a Tektronix LV500 chip tester. To date, all tests have confirmed that the FM9001 behaves as formally specified.

Here are some digitized photographs of our testing jigs.

The CLI Stack

The FM9001 is the foundation of the CLI Stack, which also includes these pieces of software verified with Nqthm:

Documentation for these pieces of verified software may be found in CLI technical reports 22, 30, 33, 34, 74, 78, and 83.


You may obtain Boyer and Moore's prover Nqthm, (the system documented in their book `A Computational Logic Handbook,' Academic Press, 1988) via anonymous ftp from Internet site ( `cd' to pub/nqthm, `get' the file README, and follow the directions. (For Nqthm-1992 purists -- To produce from the FM9001 libraries a single event file that can be processed by the Nqthm-1992 command PROVE-FILE, see the two final, commented-out forms in the file sysdef.lisp.)

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